During this era, Greek states were frequently at war with each other. Fighting skills were highly correlated with physical fitness levels, making it imperative for individuals to maintain high fitness levels. Spartan society required males to enter special fitness programs at the age of six. From this point until adulthood, the government was responsible for the child’s upbringing and training.

1- The physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spirit; that which occupies space and possesses rest mass, especially as distinct from energy. Perhaps because exercise stimulates the nervous system and releases a variety of chemicals in the brain, it has been proven to help with anxiety and depression. Measures of perceived effort and affective valence (i.e.the pleasantness of exercise) can be used to modulate or refine the prescribed exercise intensity. Reversibility The beneficial effects of training begin to be lost as soon as training stops. This happens in a similar time frame as it takes to train the system. Biological and psychological effects of PE could be partly explained through epigenetic mechanisms.

The lavish lifestyle and physical decay eventually took its toll as the Roman civilization fell to the physically superior Barbarian tribes from Northern Europe . The American Heart Association recommendations include the same findings as provided in the WCRF/ AICR recommendations buying a new house can increase one’s stress level list for people who are healthy. In regards to people with lower blood pressure or cholesterol, the association recommends that these individuals aim for around forty minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity around three or four times a week.

Examples of moderate aerobic activity include brisk walking or swimming, and vigorous aerobic activity can include running or biking. Greater amounts of exercise will provide even greater health benefits. Beside frequency and duration over time, even the intensity is a parameter to be considered when evaluating the PE effects.

The results corroborated data from previous studies that suggest physical activity in early pregnancy decreases the risk of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders. Developing and maintaining aerobic endurance, joint flexibility, and muscle strength is important in a comprehensive exercise program, especially as people age. Elderly women and men show comparable improvement in exercise training, and adherence to training in elderly individuals is high.

People have been concerned with physical fitness for thousands of years. What does change is why people are concerned with fitness and what benefits they think being fit will bring them. Different cultures at various periods believed that physical activity and exercise would provide individuals, or even the government as a whole, with different attributes. These attributes provide insight into the evolution of exercise and activity as well as a view of what was valued by certain ancient cultures.

Rigid adherence to the objective measures of physiology may cause interpretive and prescriptive errors of great magnitude. Exercise intensity should approximate 40-85% of VO2 reserve or HR reserve , as determined by an exercise test. If a test is not performed initially, a reasonable estimate of beats per minute above HR rest is generally appropriate until testing is performed.

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