An Information Integration Analysis Of How Trust And Expertise Combine To Influence Source Credibility And Persuasion

The first two, attitude bolstering and social validation, aim to reinforce a particular existing attitude. The third empowerment strategy, self-assertion, aims to increase one’s general self-confidence. swiss fashion blog This strategy strengthens self-confidence, and not one particular attitude. On the other hand, other research has not supported the effectiveness of subliminal advertising.

Then you can plan your effort in advance; that is immeasurably important. Uses the principle of reciprocity, suggesting, in effect, that the communicator has helped you in the past and now needs some help in return. Or, as a variation , suggest that if you help out now, you can request and receive help at some later date. Of course, you won’t be able to offer your audience all of these benefits, nor do you need to. And the benefit does not actually have to be directly provided; it can be promised, or even implied.

The dimensions of credibility are- competence, extraversion, sociability, character, and exposure. Credibility has profound applications in marketing, communication, law, and politics. Persuasion and credibility are the two aspects of communication.

After the forewarning, when Magritte hears the smoking message from her peers, she may be less influenced by it because she was aware ahead of time that the persuasion would likely occur and had already considered how to resist it. Because both thoughtful and spontaneous approaches can be successful, advertising campaigns, such as those used by the Obama presidential campaign, carefully make use of both spontaneous and thoughtful messages. In some cases, the messages showed Obama smiling, shaking hands with people around him, and kissing babies; in other ads Obama was shown presenting his plans for energy efficiency and climate change in more detail. Although expert communicators are expected to know a lot about the product they are endorsing, they may not be seen as trustworthy if their statements seem to be influenced by external causes. People who are seen to be arguing in their own self-interest may be ineffective because we may discount their communications (Eagly, Wood, & Chaiken, 1978; Wood & Eagly, 1981).

In short, people can be persuaded if there’s something in it for them. They will get, or believe they will get, some benefit from buying in to the message or acting a certain way. Your audience has to physically hear the message before being persuaded by it. Face-to-face and telephone contact, however, are not always possible or feasible, and there are occasions when paper communication can help you to reach your communication goals. The great advantages of print communication are that it can reach more people, and do so with much less expense per person.

Obama argued, for instance, “What they’re going to try to do is make you scared of me. They’ll say ‘He’s not patriotic enough, he’s got a funny name…he’s young and inexperienced.” Obama hoped that people would be motivated to discount these messages when they came from McCain. Another aspect of the self-validation hypothesis is that very high credibility sometimes leads to decreased persuasiveness, especially if the message contains weak arguments.

He hypothesized that some thoughts might be dissonant, in the sense that they made us feel uncomfortable, while other thoughts were more consonant, in the sense that they made us feel good. He argued that people may feel an uncomfortable state when they have many dissonant thoughts—for instance, between the idea that they are smart and decent people and they nevertheless told a lie to another student for only a small payment. This research suggests that, although giving rewards may in many cases lead us to perform an activity more frequently or with more effort, reward may not always increase our liking for the activity. In some cases reward may actually make us like an activity less than we did before we were rewarded for it.

Forewarning seems to be particularly effective when the message that is expected to follow attacks an attitude that we care a lot about. In these cases the forewarning prepares us for action—we bring up our defenses to maintain our existing beliefs. When we don’t care much about the topic, on the other hand, we may simply change our belief before the appeal actually comes (Wood & Quinn, 2003). Magritte’s parents might want to try the forewarning approach.

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